Spanish popular music artists
Latin Pop became the most popular form of Latin music in the United States during the '80s and '90s, even achieving massive crossover success among non-Latino listeners during the late '90s. While not restricted to America by any means, Latin pop was profoundly affected by production techniques and other styles of music - both Latin and otherwise - that originated primarily in the United States. Tejano music, centered in Texas and the U.S./Mexico border region, had begun to introduce synthesizers, slicker production, and a more urban sensibility to formerly rootsy styles like norteño and conjunto. Moreover, New York and Miami were home to thriving Latin club scenes, which during the '80s led to the rise of Latin freestyle, a club-oriented dance music that was rooted in Latin rhythms but relied on synthesizers and drum machines for most of its arrangements. Both of these sounds influenced the rise of Latin pop, which retained Latin rhythms in its uptempo numbers but relied more on mainstream pop for its melodic sense. Latin pop's first major crossover star was Gloria Estefan, who scored a succession of non-club-oriented dance-pop hits during the mid- to late '80s, but who eventually became known more as an adult contemporary diva with an affinity for sweeping ballads. This blend of Latinized dance-pop and adult contemporary balladeering dominated Latin pop through the '90s; most of its artists sang in Spanish for Latino audiences, although Latin pop's similarity to the mainstream helped several performers score crossover hits when they chose to record in English. Jon Secada landed several pop hits during the mid-'90s, and Tejano pop star Selena's album Dreaming of You actually debuted at number one on the album charts upon its 1995 release (although, sadly, her success was posthumous). However, that was nothing compared to Latin pop's commercial explosion in 1999, thanks to well-crafted, mostly English-language crossover albums by ex-Menudo member Ricky Martin (already a star among Spanish-speaking audiences) and actress Jennifer Lopez.